November 1950

KT 0839 27 May 51
During the later part of 50, at CHANGSOENG, observed aprx 20 US PW escorted by three CCF soldiers playing basket ball in an open fields All PW were dressed in USA clothing.

KT 0841 31 May 51
Observed 20 US prisoners being sent to CHINA in Nov 50 at UNSON.

KT 0505 31 May 1951
CIRCUMSTANCES OF CAPTURE
28 Nov 50, a force designated as Hq Bn Adv CP of the 1st Marine Div, which included "B" Co of the 31st Regt, a unit of the Royal Marine Commandos, and tank unit with nine tanks, proceeded from HAMHUNG (CV 7517), and arrived at 1400 hr, during the same day, at the 1st Marine Regt CP at KOTO-RI (CV 5650). This force continued toward HAGARU-RI, but enroute it engaged an enemy unit and withdrew to KOTORI. On 29 Nov 50, the force known as Hq Bn Adv CP returned to the site of the previous day's engagement where it again engaged the enemy, advanced aprx two miles, and at 1400 hr, the force was compelled to dismount because of heavy enemy fire. During this fire fight, the subject observed that five of the nine tanks in the convoy withdrew with orders to return to the 1st Marine Regt CP to protect that perimeter.

At 0500 30 Nov 50, as the engagement continued, the subject learned that CCF elements opposing them had demanded the surrender of the UN force within five minutes. The subject said that Maj MacLAUGHUN,USMC, who was Liaison Officer with X Corps, upon conferring with Capt RECKHAM, USA, of "B" Co, 31st Regt, decided that since the CCF had also promised to return all wounded personnel to UN lines, the best solution would be to surrender. (The subject did not know whether the wounded troops were secured with UN elements, but he learned aprx. four months later that Lt Col CHITTERSON, Asst G-3, 1st Marine Div, one of the wounded, was in a PW Camp in North KOREA.).

At 0530 30 Nov 50, the subject and 143 troops of the Hq Bn Adv CP sur­rendered to unknown CCF elements in the vicinity of HAGARU-RI. In this group there were 136 who were uninjured or slightly wounded, and 7 who were litter cases and were not removed by the CCF.

REASON FOR RELEASE:
19 May 51, at an unknown PW Camp aprx 48 km from WONSAN (CU 6536) the subject and 18 Marines were informed by an unidentified* GCF officer, believed to be a colonel, that they would be released and returned to the UN forces,' The subject did not know why these particular 19 men were selected.

The subject did not know the precise explanation for their release, but he believed, since they were to be released at the 1st Marine Div sector, that the purpose of the CCF was to convince the US Marines that the CCF would treat prisoners kindly and that the Marines should not fight against hopeless odds.

ROUTE OF MARCH
From their place of capture in the vicinity of) HAGARU-RI on 30 Nov 50, the 136 UN FW were marched in a southward direction for two days and then northeastward for aprx seven days, during which time the sub­ject-recalled passing the CHANGJIN Reservoir (YD 4016).

0/a 8 Dec 50, the subject arrived at village that appeared to be a PW collecting point operated by the CCF. The subject and Pfc YASUKAZU M. HIKIDA (who was attached to the PW Section of the British Royal Ma­rines) were mistaken for ROKA troops, and denying this, they were ques­tioned as to whether they wore Japanese soldiers, during the two weeks that the subject remained in this camp, he had to attempt to improve the English of the Assistant Commander of the camp, an officer named CHING.

At this unknown camp, during Dec 50, six US and one British Marine PW accepted a CCF offer to drive Chinese vehicles. The subject later learned that: 1st Lt TURNER, Tank Bn, 1st Marine Div, made a CCF tank inoperable by running it into a rocky hillside; SFC BUCK of "F" or "G" Co, % US Div, attempted to escape when driving a CCF vehicle, but he complained that his plan was exposed by an unknown US soldier; Cpl SMITH 7th Regt Hq, Corpsman, 1st US Marine Div, M/Sgt HAYDEN and Pvt JOHNSON, "F" or ”G” Co, 3d US Div, and 1st Class Joseph GOODMAN, British Royal Marines, also drove vehicles, but the subject did not learn of their experiences.

(Editor)
BUCK - Bill E. is MIA 8-6-1950
HAYDEN – Edward B. is MIA 11/26/1950
JOHNSON – Billy Edward & Jack Weldon are both missing Marines
SMITH – Gerald Lorian & Orvil were both 7 Regt
TURNER - Clemon, Joseph L., Lester S, Thomas J., Wallace W. are all MIA

0/a 18 Dec 50, the subject accompanied by Pfc HIKIDA, 1st Lt George SNIPAN, Plat Ldr "B" Co, 3lst Regt, Pfc Paul J. PHILIP, 7th Motor Trans­port, 1st US Marine Div, Pvt MARQUEZ, "B" Co, 31st Regt, and Mr. Frank NOEL of the United Press, in a group totaling 25 PWs, marched in a north­ward direction. During the march, the subject and [HIKIDA, because of wounds and leg ailments, could not continue walking and were delivered to an unknown NKA unit, joining a small group of ether US PW,

(Editor)
MARQUEZ – Jasper V., Martin, & Rudolph are missing

On 27 Dec 50, the subject noted that the NKA guards were replaced with CGF troops at a point aprx 30 miles south of KANGGYE (BA 9837). There, the subject boarded a train which took this PW group to KANGGYE and from there, on 29 Dec 50, they were, marched in a northwest direction to a semi-permanent FW Camp located sons where between KANGGYE and HANJON DONG.

The subject remained at this camp until early Mar 51. He estimated that there were aprx 280 UN PW at this camp, {including three Turkish soldiers, and one British soldier.

During the first week of Mar 51, the entire 280 PW returned to KANGGYE where, they rode a train to a location which the subject believed to be either SUNCHUN (YD 5267) or PYONGYANG. (The subject observed what appeared to be a rail center at this location.) There, the subject and aprx 60 of the group were marched in an easterly direction, while the larger remainder of the group of 280 PW continued marching in a northward direction. The subject understood that this division was made because his group was to receive further political indoctri­nation, and the remainder were sent northward where food was more plentiful. At this time, the subject noted that Pfc ROEBUCK, 7th Motor Transport Bn, 1st US Marine Div died of wounds and exposure.
The subject's group, now numbering 59 men, marched to another un­known PW Camp which the subject believed was situated within 48 km of WONSAN (CU 6536). At this camp, on 3Apr 51, the Subject stated that thirty UN P/W were selected to be returned to the UN forces. The sub­ject and this group proceeded southward on trucks until they were with­in 30 miles of the front line, o/a 17 Apr 51, they returned northward from this unknown area. An unknown CCF officer explained that this move was made only for their safety. (Note: This occurred five days prior to the launching of the CCF offensive in Apr51.)
Enroute northward, four wounded US PW were added, to the group of thirty men who were to be released. The subject only learned their names and no unit designations: EMERSON,GODLEWSKI, STEELE, and Robert GREGORY, The subject believed that this group rode on trucks to an area aprx 50 miles northwest of PYONGYANG, At this site, the subject met many of the troops with which he had been captured during Nov 50. The total number of UK PW at this camp was estimated to be aprx 300.
(Editor)
GREGORY – Robert Snead is MIA 11/02/1959
STEELE – Clyde D. & Dean A.& Harold Matthew are missing
Finally, 20 May 51, the subject and eighteen US Marine PW were put on trucks and again driven southward. On 22 May 51, the group dismounted in the vicinity of the 38th parallel during the night of 23 May 51, they forded an unknown river, and during the afternoon of 24 May 51, their Chinese guards left them at an unknown village.
During the night of 24 May 51, the releasees, led by S/Sgt Charles L. HARRISON, MP Co, 1st US Marine Div departed from the village and on the morning of 25 May 51, HARRISON directed that markings be laid on a nearby rice paddy, which stated "POW 19 RESCUE". At the same time, a Korean woman and boy were dispatched in opposite directions to make contact with the advancing UN tanks, A US observation craft, with the markings A-470, dropped a note after sighting the panel, which assured the group that UN tanks would shortly arrive. On 24(1130) May 51, three tanks of the 7th Recon Co, 7th US Div appeared at this unknown location and rescued the nineteen releasees.
INTERROGATION BY THE' ENEMY:
During the first week of Jan 51, the subject was first interro­gated by a Major WEI, CCF, The questioning concerned the subject's duties in the service. The subject falsely stated that he was a duty NCO, and in KOREA, he was the labor NCO for his unit. Later, the sub­ject heard that all UN troops in any manner associated with the in­telligence service would not be released from captivity until the end of the war. The subject also heard that British soldiers would not be released.
At a later date in Jan 51, the subject was interrogated by a CCF company grade officer as to the financial status of himself and his family, his occupation as a civilian, his reason for entering the ser­vice, length of service, and where he had served with the US Army.

POLITICAL INDOCTRINATIONWhen the indoctrination course began, a Chinese Officer selected two Pfj Cpl MAFFIOLI, Motor Transport Tank Bn, 1st US Marine Division, and another unknown US soldier to write articles for the camp newspaper "New Life", which was edited and printed in the camp and was published twice a week.

The subject also read the China Monthly Review printed in English, the Soviet Union also printed in English, and the Russian Woman which was printed in Russian and explained to them.

The Subject's picture, together with photographs of US PW, were printed in an unknown issue of the China Monthly Review, which was later reproduced by US newspapers.

As part of the indoctrination program, the Subject and an unknown number of PW signed the STOCKHOIM PEACE APPEAL.

After the group had received their five week indoctrination course, they continued to receive propaganda but less intensified. The PW were further classified into three sections: Administrative, Educational, and patients.
The Administrative' personnel were the general laborers for the camp. They were used as cook's helpers; gathered firewood and food; cared for the sick, and were aircraft spotters.

The Educational staff organized and published the NEW LIFE, super­vised squad discussions, interrogated US PW, comforted the newly arrived US PW in regard to their welfare, and assisted the Administrative per­sonnel, when needed.
The patients were those men who were completely incapable of doing anything for themselves. They were treated for their illness by fellow PW and Chinese medical aidment They suffered from dysentery, lung and stomach ailments and malnutrition. Only the most basic remedies were available such as "Brown's Mixture" for sore throats; aspirin tablets; sulpher drugs, iodine, and epsom salts. The only bandages available were those which had been previously used and laundered.
The following is a roster of the men that the Subject recalled, as of the second week of March 51:
ADMINISTRATIVE
Cpl Hayton, 1st Marine Division.
Cpl Calvin Williams, Postal Section,1st Marine Div.
Sgt Charles Dickerson, Tank Bn, 1st Marine Div.
Sgt Duke, "F" or "G" Co, 3d Division.
Cpl Scherer, "K" Co, 31st Regiment,
Cpl Hawkins, Tank Bn, 1st Marine Division.
Pfc Stough, "F"1 or "!G" Co, 3d Division.
Pfc Jack Chapman, nB" Co, 31st .Inf Regt.
Pvt Harder, "F" or "G" Co, 3d Division.
Sgt Petty, "B" Co, 31st Regt.
Pvt Polk, “B" Co, 31st Regt.
(Editor)
DUKE – James D. is MIA 11/28/1950
HAWKINS – Julius W. is MIA 2/13/1951
PETTY – George Jr is MIA 11/27/1950
SCHERER – Seymour is MIA 12/02/1950
EDUCATIONAL
SFC Maphis, M.P. Co,1st Marine Division.
S/Sgt Charles L. Harrison, M.P.Co,1st Marine Div
Sgt Martinez, "B" Co, 31st Regt.
Pfc Paul J. Philips, Motor Transport, 1st Marina Div.
Cpl Maffioli, Motor Transport, 1st Marine Division.
Sgt Estees, Fire control, 1st Marine Division.
S/Sgt James Nash, M.P. Co, 1st Marine Division.
Sgt DeLong, "K" Co, 31st Regt

(Editor)
DELONG – Clayton C. is MIA 12/12/1950
ESTES – Edward Eugene & Robert Vernon are missing
MARTINEZ – Arturo Brieseno, Jesus Ponce, Manuel Henry, & Primeo R. are missing
NASH – James Terrell is MIA 2/12/1951
PATIENTS
Lt Gold, liaison Officer, 7th Marine Regt.
M/Sgt Gus Dunis, M.P. 'Co, 1st Marine Division. Pfc John Haring, Ambulance Driver, 7th Marine Div.'
Pfc Joe Quiring, "F" Co, 7th Marine Division.
Sgt Manor, Motor Transport, 7th Marine Division.
Pvt Riley, "B" Co, 31st
Ragt. Pvt Barratt, "F" or "G" Co, 3d Div.
Pfc Leon Hillburn, Tank Bn, 1st Marine Division,
Cpl Bob Gregory, Unit unknown.
Sgt Steele, unit unknown.
Godlewski, unit unknown.
(Editor)
RILEY – Charles D., John F., Joseph F., & Lawrence T. are missing
STEELE – Clyde D., Dean A., & Harold Matthew are missing
GREGORY – Robert Snead is missing

KT3492 11Jul 52
In early-Nov 50, when PW and 200 other PW (incl 7 US PW), were marched to KANGGYE (BA 9837), obs 3 of the US PW froze to death. The dead US PW were buried in the snow. The remaining 4 US PW were turned over to the CCF at KANGGYE and were imprisoned in some civ homes at a point 8 km N of KANGGYE. Number of US PW were already imprisoned at these civ homes.